CFOAI 2014/2015

CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

 

Thu (8:00-9:30, room 210, Międzychodzka)

#01 2.10.2014: AI introduction (summary)

Introduction

Lecture

  1. What is AI?
    • The term
    • Research areas
    • Ambiguity
    • Definitions
  2. The history of the idea of AI
    • Myths and legends
    • Fiction
    • Machinery
    • Concepts

Links

#02 09.10.2014: AI paradigms (summary)

AI Paradigms

  1. Paradigm (Kuhn)
  2. AI paradigm (pair of 1. concept of intelligence and
    2. a methodology in which intelligent computer systems are
    developed and operated) [Caplinskas 1998]
  3. Behaviourist paradigm
  4. Agent paradigm
  5. Artificial life paradigm

Links

  • Newell, A.; Shaw, J.C.; Simon, H.A. (1959). Report on a general problem-solving program. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Processing [PDF]
  • M. Pelis, O. Majer, Logic of Questions and Public Announcements. In N. Bezhanishvili, S. Löbner, K. Schwabe, L. Spada, editors, Eighth International Tbilisi Symposium on Logic, Language and Computation 2009, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, 2011, pages 145-157. ISBN 978-3-642-22302-0. [PDF]
  • Talk with ELIZA
  • Create your own chatbot
  • Play Game of Life

#03 16.10.2014: Strong vs. weak AI (summary)

Strong vs. weak AI 

  1. Background: AI Winter
  2. Background: ELIZA, SHRDLU, R. Schank’s work
  3. Searle: Strong and weak AI
  4. Searle: Chinese room argument
  5. Computation — Turing machines

Links

  • Searle, John. R. (1980) Minds, brains, and programs. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3): 417-457 [URL]
  • John Searle, Our shared condition – consciousness. [TED talk video]
  • SHRDLU: (software) (T. Winograd’s SHRDLU presentation)
  • Terry Winograd, Thinking machines: Can there be? Are we? published in James Sheehan and Morton Sosna, eds., The Boundaries of  humanity: Humans, Animals, Machines, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991 pp. 198-223. [URL]
  • I want more fun with Turing machines! [Android App]
  • I want to chat with SHRLDU! [Java implementation to download here]

#04 23.10.2014: Computational Theory of Mind (summary)

  1. Representations
  2. CTM — history
  3. Generic CTM
  4. CTM goes digital
  5. Criticism of the DCTM
  6. Connectionist Computational Theory of Mind

Links

  • 90 Second Philosophy: the Luminous Room [url]

#05-07 30.10, 6.11, 12.11: The Turing test (summary)

Part #1

1. Alan M.Turing — bio & works

2. TT inspirations
– Universal Turing
– Machine and imitation
– Chess paper machine.
3. TT rules
4. TT misconceptions
– Standard vs. literal TT reading
– TT is a test for specific human-like intelligence
– Turing’s prognosis
Part #2

1. TT discussions
– TT and intelligence
– Counterarguments
2. TT modifications
– Strengthening TT
– Inverted TT
– Lady Lovelace Test
– MIST
– TinyMUD

 

Part #3

1. TT — formal modelling
2. TT and IEL
– interrogator’s perspective
– Erotetic search scenarios
– The TT(IEL) model
3. Other ways of formalising the TT
4. Practical realisation of the TT idea
– Degrees of non-cooperation
– The LC DNC study
– DNC structure
– And what about theTuring test?

Links

#08 27.11: Counterarguments Against AI, Part 1: Incompleteness Theorems (summary)

1. Godel’s theorems

2. Lucas-Penrose argument

3. Discussions
– Consistency issue
– The algorithm of the human mind
– Objections to various idealizations

4. Turing Interrogative Games
– TIGs Introduced
– The Trap
– What is the Price of Getting Out From the Trap

Links

 

#09 4.12: Counterarguments Against AI, Part 2: Frame problem & AI as a pseudo-problem (summary)

1. Frame problem
– Narrow and broad sense of the frame problem

2. Technical frame problem: situation calculus and circumscription

3. Frame problem: Philosophical considerations

4. Is AI a pseudoproblem?
– How to understand AI?
– AI is an alternative intelligence
– AI and terminological mess

 

#10 11.12: Inspiring Hard AI Problems, Part 1: CAPTCHA (summary)

1. What is a hard AI (AI-complete) problem?

2. Examples (natural language understanding, vision and image understanding, knowledge representation and problem solving).

3. Hard AI problems and cryptography — CAPTCHA
– examples
– security and usability issues
– where to go now?

Links

#11 18.12: Inspiring Hard AI Problems, Part 2: Human Computation (summary)

1. AI-complete problems
2. Crowdsourcing
3. How to motivate people?
4. Gamification
5. Human computation & GWAP
5a. AI motivated games
5b. Scientific discovery games

Links

#12 08.01: AI — Ethical Considerations (summary)

1. Ethical considerations and AI — an overview
2. AI as a research discipline and ethics
— responsibility in science
— The Heads in the Sand Objection (Turing test)
3. Ethics of artificial agents (AAs)
— AAs as moral patients
— AAs as moral agents
4. Ethics of AI in science fiction

 

Links

  • Former drone operator shares his inner torment (CNN)
  • Life as a US drone operator (the Guardian)
  • Dolphins deserve same rights as humans, say scientists (BBC)
  • Court in Argentina grants basic rights to orangutan (BBC)

#13 15.01: Final test

The test will consist of 10 test questions (1 point each) and 2 open questions (5 points each).

Points gained from the assignments sum up to the points gained form the test.

Final mark will be established as follows:

10–11 points: 3.0
12–13 points: 3.5
14–15 points: 4.0
16–17 points: 4.5
18 and more points: 5.0

#14 22.01: Marta Durczak, Agnieszka Schulz and Paweł Łupkowski: AI and Beyond (summary)

0. AI & Beyond
1. Possible new issues
– Ethics (non-human person)
– Legal issues (Darknet bot breaks a law)
– Emotions and interactions (the Uncanny Valley hypothesis)
2. How will we change?
– Transhumanism
3. How environment will change?
– L. Floridi’s Enveloping the World idea
4. AI & beyond in science fiction
5. CFOAI: Summary

Links

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